马斯克的脑机接口除了捧红小萌猪,未来还有啥用?【电动Emma前沿科技】

2020-09-12 DannyData小丹尼 | 艾丹尼旗舰店

8月29日 特斯拉老总马一龙又召开了一个发布会——招聘会。宣布了他于2016年成立的新公司Neuralink 取得了“重大”进展,并为大家带来了新产品,就是这枚硬币大小的装置。

Elon Musk, the boss of Tesla, held another press conference on August 29th, ah, no, a job fair, announcing that his new company, Neuralink, which was founded in 2016, had made “significant” progress and brought a new product, a device the size of a coin. 



它拥有8毫米的“超薄”外观, 植入式“隐形”设计,支持高达24小时的超长续航及无线充电,植入手术由这个神奇的机器人完成,需要掀起你一小块头盖骨,将设备植入,再用替换材料封口即可。

With an 8mm “ultra-thin” appearance and an implantable “invisible” design, it supports up to 24 hours of ultra-long battery life and wireless charging.  The implant is performed by this magical robot, which needs to lift a small piece of your skull, implant the device, and seal it with a replacement material.


官方宣称耗时仅需一小时,植入大脑全过程机器会精准避开脑内所有血管,听说不会流一滴血....正宗的头不断、发型也不乱,让你尊享上午入院、下午出院的极速体验。

Officials claim that it takes only an hour, and during the whole process of implantation into the brain, the machine will accurately avoid all the blood vessels in the brain, and it is said that it will not shed a single drop of blood...  no need for surgery, and your hairstyle is not messy, you can enjoy the extremely fast experience of being admitted to the hospital in the morning and discharged in the afternoon.


然而到了功能展示环节,马斯克却基本只演示了脑机接口界的一些常规操作... 很显然他这支成立5年不到的新团队,虽然表面上看起来很牛掰,实则并没有像他吹的牛皮那样取得了实质性突破。

However, when it comes to the functional display, Musk basically only demonstrated some routine operations in the brain-computer interface... It is obvious that his new team, which has been established for less than five years,  looks awesome seemingly, but has not made a substantial breakthrough like he bragged before. 


这到底是什么原因造成的呢?脑机接口又是个什么东西呢?将来可以让我实现意念打游戏吗?

What on earth is the cause of this? What is the brain-computer interface? Can I play games using my mind in the future? 


我是电动EMMA。今天和大家聊聊脑机接口未来的五大应用场景,到底会不会从梦想照进现实!

I am Emma. Today, I will talk about the five major application scenarios of the brain-computer interface in the future, and whether it will come from a dream to a reality in the end!



我分别跟中、美、欧多位脑机接口的从业者聊完后,发现他们对马斯克的这个发布会存在两级化的评价:

After talking to a number of brain-computer interface practitioners in China, the United States and Europe, I found that there was a polarization of Musk’s press conference:


一方面,做科研的脑机接口大佬都认为马斯克就是个大忽悠,发布会貌似挺炫酷,其实没啥实质性技术突破;08年那只能意念控制机械臂的猴子,16年就成功在公屏上打出莎士比亚名言“To be or not to be"的猴子,哪只灵长类不比这头脑机接口的猪技术含量高?

On the one hand,  the specialists engaged in the brain-computer interface all think that Musk is an arrant liar, and the press conference seems cool, but there is no substantial technological breakthrough; the monkey that could use its mind to control the robotic arm in 2008, successfully typed Shakespeare’s famous words “To be or not to be” in 2016. Which primate is not more technical than this brain-computer interface pig?


但另一方面,工程和商业领域的大佬们又直呼马总威武,尽管技术突破貌似平平无奇,实则下了盘大棋,因为脑机接口的应用场景千千万,马斯克似乎又一次在一个庞大产业出现拐点的前夜,提前出发了。

But on the other hand, the bigwigs of engineering and business think it is awesome. Although the technological breakthrough seems to be mediocre, he actually is playing the long game, because there are so many applications of brain-computer interface, and Musk once again seems to have set out early on the eve of an inflection point in a huge industry.


我们现在是用手跟手机进行交互,脑机接口可以让你的大脑直接跟设备交互,你可以通过大脑活动,也就是脑电信号,来控制外部设备,比如说每次想打“保护”,都可以不用手了。每一次想打Emma好阔爱,都可以直接用意念发送了。前段时间淘宝还发布了个"意念购",用大脑意念就能下单购物,喜欢买买买的剁手族不用再剁手了,以后只能靠你妈管住你的意念了。

We are now interacting with the phone by hands, while the brain-computer interface allows your brain to interact directly with the device, and you can control external devices through brain activities, that is, EEG. For example, every time you want to type“protect”, you can do it without your hands. And every time you want to type that “Emma is so cute”, you can send it directly with your mind. Some time ago, Taobao released a “taobao neurabuy”, that is, you can place an order for shopping with your brain. The people who like to buy don’t have to chop their hands anymore, for they can only rely on their mothers to control their minds.



之前在DannyPal也说过,脑机接口也分两种:非侵入式和侵入式,区别有点像动刀整容和普通医美:一个需要通过手术把植入物放你身体里,另一个不用动刀、只靠仪器就能实现让人脑跟机器对接。

As mentioned before at DannyPal, there are two kinds of brain-computer interface: non-intrusive and intrusive, and the difference between them is a bit like plastic surgery and ordinary medical beauty: one requires surgery to put the implant in your body, and the other can connect the human brain to the machine without a scalpel, only by the device instead.


我们先聊聊听上去更炸的侵入式脑机接口,也就是马斯克通过这头猪猪展示的:打开你脑门,放个"芯片"进去,用来接收、记录、并且刺激你的大脑活动。

Let me first talk about the more astounding one--- intrusive brain-computer interface, which Musk demonstrated through this pig: open your forehead and put a “chip” in it to receive, record, and stimulate your brain activity.


这只猪木得选择,就被马斯克“脑机结合”了。但我们正常人,谁愿意让别人打开头颅放个芯片进去?所以这个技术的应用场景,注定小众,刚开始肯定只限于非常极端的医疗康复,比如说大脑有严重创伤的病人。

This pig had no choice, so it was “brain-computer combined” by Musk. However, which one of us normal people wants to let someone open our head and put a chip in it? So the application scenario of this technology is destined to be a minority, and it must be limited to extreme medical rehabilitation in the beginning, such as patients with severe brain trauma.


马斯克做演讲有个特点,别人是画饼,他是画蛋糕,喜欢把牛吹得不分层次。我还记得SpaceX初期,他零部件还在设计,就已经在吹“殖民火星”了。啊这…… 大哥,你这个目标也太遥远了吧,那第一步也要先把火箭造出来呀!这次脑机接口的发布会也是这个套路,都还没实现把芯片植入到跟人脑更接近的猴脑上,就已经开吹这项技术如何如何包治百病、全面普及了。

Musk has a characteristic when he gives a speech: other pie in the sky, but he “cakes” in the sky and likes to brag at different levels. I still remember that in the early days of SpaceX, when the parts being designed, he was already boasting of “Colonizing the Mars”. Ah, man, your goal is too far away, but the first step is to make the rocket! The launch of this brain-computer interface conference was also following the same routine. Even before the chip is implanted into the monkey’s brain, which is closer to the human brain, he has already boasted about how this technology can cure all diseases and become widely available.


我最擅长做的工作呢,就是给马斯克的小作文划重点、辨真伪、分层次。从现在的技术成熟度看,“脑机接口”的医疗应用,会有三个阶梯

What I am good at doing is to highlight, distinguish between the true and the false, and divide the layout of Musk’s small composition. Judging from the current technological maturity, there will be three ladders for the medical application of the “brain-computer interface”.


最成熟的是运动控制,也就是通过植入的芯片对人体四肢进行控制,让帕金森患者不再手抖,帮助截瘫病人重新走路。2014年在巴西世界杯开球的“截瘫男人”,就是运用人机接口技术实现的。所以当马斯克说,这项技术能帮到截瘫和癫痫病人,牛比吹得还是靠谱的,起码现在实验室已经实现了。

The most mature one is movement control, that is, through the implanted chip, the limbs of the human body can be controlled, so that Parkinson patients will no longer shake their hands, and helping paraplegic patients walk again. The paraplegic man who kicked off the World Cup in Brazil in 2014 was achieved by using man-machine interface technology. So when Musk said that the technique could help paraplegic and epileptic patients, the boast was reliable, at least now in the lab.


除了对四肢的控制,人机接口的下一个方向就是感知觉控制,通过植入的芯片对视觉、听觉等进行控制。一旦实现了,有机会让世界上90万聋哑人恢复交流能力、3900万盲人重新看到世界,功德无量!不过现在,我们想用神经信号去控制感知觉还完全没门:神经通路没明白,神经表达也不清楚,短期技术铁定无法突破,马斯克这波牛,是在火星。

In addition to the control of the limbs, the next direction of the man-machine interface is perceptual control, which controls vision, hearing and so on through the implanted chip. Once realized, there will be an opportunity to restore the communication ability of 900000 deaf-mute people in the world and 39 million blind people to see the world again, which is a great service to mankind. Now, however, there is no way for us to use neural signals to control perception: the neural pathway is not understood, the neural expression is not clear as well, so short-term technology will definitely not be able to breakthrough. Musk is absolutely telling a Mars-level lie.


更难更扯的医疗功效,是通过人机接口来对认知能力进行控制和修复,比如马斯克口中的”记忆上传“、“把你的记忆下载到另一个人的大脑中”,就玄学到让所有神经科学家直接翻白眼。借用哈佛博士Jeff Lichtman的比喻:如果用一公里的路来代表我们完全搞懂了大脑,现在我们在这段路上大约走了2厘米,马斯克这波牛,用现在的技术看,简直是直接发射到太阳系外了。

The more difficult and ridiculous medical effect is to control and repair cognitive abilities through man-machine interface, such as what Musk calls “memory uploading” and “downloading your memories to another person’s brain”, which was such a metaphysics that made all neuroscientists roll their eyes directly. To borrow the analogy of Dr. Jeff Lichtman of Harvard: if we use a kilometer of road to represent that we have fully understood the brain, now we have walked about 2 centimeters along this section of the road. Musk’s this boast, in today’s technology, is simply launched directly out of the solar system.


但钢铁侠毕竟是钢铁侠,除了吹牛吹上火星,确实有他的过人之处。无论是电动车、火箭还是人机接口,马斯克最初的小目标,都不是技术上做到最完善突出,而是商业化的潜力,Neuralink也是这样。

But Iron Man is Iron Man after all, for apart from bragging, there is something special about him. Whether it’s electric automobiles, rockets or man-machine interface, Musk’s initial small goal is not to achieve the best technical prominence, but the potential for commercialization, as is the case with Neuralink.



今天Neuralink展示的人机接口技术,十年前就已经有人做出来了。但它的亮点在于,推出了无线充电植入物、而且还是个体积这么迷你、看上去轻便友好的植入物。放进身体里的医疗设备,肯定越小越简洁、越容易让人接受。你甭管最终技术能达到哪一步,就拿Neuralink这个迷你产品跟实验室里的人机接口“插线板”PK,你说投资人和消费者更买谁的单?

The man-machine interface technology demonstrated by Neuralink today was made ten years ago. But its highlight is the introduction of wireless charging implant, such a small, lightweight-looking implant. The smaller and the more concise the medical equipment put into the body is, the easier it is to accept. No matter what the final technology can achieve, if the Neuralink mini product battles with the man-machine interface in the lab, who do you think investors and consumers will pay for?



不止是Neuralink, 世界上95%的侵入式脑机接口技术,都在拿医疗康复作为切入口。但人机结合未来的应用,肯定不止在医院和实验室里。

Not only Neuralink, but 95% of the world’s intrusive brain-computer interface technology is also using medical rehabilitation as an entry point. But the future application of man-machine combination is certainly not limited to hospitals and laboratories.



我下面说的一些脑机接口应用,一个比一个魔幻,但都是已经有公司在做的,欢迎弹幕吐槽这些用爱发电的技术先行者。

Some of the brain-computer interface applications I’m talking about below are more than magical, but they are already being done by companies. Comments are welcome to complain about these technology pioneers.


有手就能玩的手游,不用手也可以吗?

You can play mobile games with hands, then can you play them without hands? 


有钱就可以!

As long as you have money!


以后买一个这样的设备,戴头上,就能捕捉你的脑电信号,完全用大脑的活动操控整个游戏世界,躺着也能实现意念打游戏,真正实现躺赢,你难道能拒绝?

In the future, if you buy such a device and wear it on your head, it can capture your EEG, you can completely control the game world with the activity of your brain, meaning you can also play games with your mind when you lie down,  really winning in a breeze. Can you refuse that?


现在已经有这样的设备了,一家叫Neurable的公司开发的,给大家看看,就是线有点多,戴着有点重,发型有点容易乱。但咱们肥宅能打游戏的时候,谁还在意发型呢?

Now there is such a device, developed by a company called Neurable. Let me show you. It has a lot of threads, and it’s a little heavy to wear it, which makes your hairstyle a little messy. But when we fat indoors men play games, who cares about hairstyles?



上个月我在BW看到小姐姐的这个制服很喜欢,偷拍了下来,上传至淘宝,找到同款,手动选size, 犹豫一小会儿,下单、支付,总共用了八步完成。

I really liked this uniform of the lass that I saw in BW last month, so I secretly photographed it, uploaded it to Taobao, found the same style, manually selected the size, hesitated for a while, placed an order and paid for it, which took a total of eight steps to complete.


产品经理们天天想的,就是怎么优化产品路径,让用户以最少的点击到达终点。

What product managers think about every day is how to optimize the product path so that users can reach the destination with the least number of clicks.


比如淘宝在前段时间造物节发布的意念购,其实就是让你买买买的操作路径更加简单粗暴,跳到了手机下单环节,直接用大脑呼出"意念购系统",进行推荐下单。

For example, the Taobao Neurabuy released by Taobao at the Creation Festival some time ago is to make the operation path of your purchase more simple and rough, when it comes to the process of issuing an order, you can directly use your brain to exhale the “Taobao neurabuy system” to recommend and place an order.


听上去很玄乎吧,但未来可能真有可能实现你想啥买啥,想退货就退货,想打折就...嗯你想多了,别老想打折了,买多了有可能被你妈打一骨折。

It sounds mysterious, but it may be possible in the future to buy whatever you want, return it if you want, and give it a discount if you want... well, forget it, don’t always think about discounts, for if you buy too much, you may be punished by your mother.


如果说脑机接口相当于植入人体的电脑,那意念购可能就是这台电脑的操控系统,购物可能只是这台电脑上软件实现的第一个功能,未来还可能有更多应用场景。

If the brain-computer interface is equivalent to a computer implanted into the human body, then the mind-purchase may be the operating system of this computer, and shopping may only be the first function of the software on this computer, and there may be more applications in the future.


我们再脑洞大开一些,科幻一些:未来人类大脑更新知识,甚至购买虚拟女友,是否也可以像手机更新系统一样简单呢? 比如购买乐谱植入大脑中,就像给你的英雄购买装备一样简单,你们觉得有可能实现吗?

Let us fill our mind with more visions and ideas and more magical: in the future, can the human brain update knowledge, or even buy a virtual girlfriend, as easily as a mobile phone update system? For example, buying music score and implanting it into your brain is as simple as buying equipment for your hero. Do you think it is possible?


聪明人可以一目十行,量子波动可以闭眼千行,但再聪明的人,说话和打字的速度都有限。

Smart people can read ten lines at one glance, and quantum fluctuations can take in a thousand lines, but no matter how smart they are, the speed of speaking and typing is limited.


我试了下,手机上每秒平均打3个字;Rap God姆爷的舌头是破过吉尼斯记录的,每秒也只能rap7.46个字。

I tried and typed an average of 3 words per second on the phone.

Rap God Eminem’s tongue broke the Guinness record and can only rap7.46 words per second.


这个输出效率极低的问题怎么破?脑机接口说:你走开让我来。

How to solve the problem of extremely low output efficiency? The brain-computer interface said, “Go away and; Leave it to me”.


脸书从17年就已经在发力研究怎么通过脑外设备收集脑电波、直接生成语言,不用口说不靠手打,每秒蹦出100个字无压力。真正做到“我思故我在”,裁缝都没我快。脑袋里的想法跳过口手,直接转换成满屏文字。

Facebook has been studying how to collect brainwaves through extra-brain devices and generate language directly since 2017, without speaking or hands, and 100 words could be generated per second easily. This is the real “I think therefore I am”, and the tailor is not as fast as me. The thoughts in your head skip the mouth and hands and turn directly into screenful words.



摄像头和钉钉都只能监控你有没按时上学上班。但脑机结合设备,可以直接监测你的大脑。现在脑机接口最火的公司之一BrainCo,开发出了个头环,不到5000块,带头上就能显示你的专注程度。

Cameras and DingTalk can only monitor whether you go to school and work on time. But the brain-computer device can directly monitor your brain. Now BrainCo, one of the hottest companies with brain-computer interface, has developed a head ring, which is worth less than 5000 yuan and can show your concentration.



赤橙黄绿青蓝紫,你有没有认真听我说话,有没有专心看我视频,头环一戴见分晓。红色说明你爱我,橙色表示还行,蓝色就直接分手吧,勉强没有幸福。

Red, orange, yellow, green, cyan, blue and purple, do you listen to me carefully? Do you pay attention to my video? I can tell as soon as you wear the head ring. Red means you love me, orange means that’s OK, and blue means we should just break up, for if you are reluctant to be together, there will be no happiness.


还有一款更萌的,由日本公司Neurowear推出。这个猫耳朵在你忘我学习时,会竖起来;注意力还算及格,会来回摇摆;开小差时,猫耳朵直接会塌下来。感觉好适合知识区大V、up主佩戴.....

There is a cuter one, launched by the Japanese company Neurowear. This cat’s ears will stand up when you study absorbedly; if your attention is just a little focused, they will swing back and forth; when you are absent-minded, the cat’s ears will collapse directly. I feel that this is suitable for the KOL and uploaders in the knowledge area...



大家来看一眼这个著名的Gartner新兴技术周期曲线,像脑机接口这类前沿科技,其实还处于萌芽上升阶段。

Let’s take a look at this famous Gartner Emerging Technology Cycle Curve. Cutting-edge technologies such as brain-computer interface are actually still in their infancy. 



无论是刚刚讲过的Neuralink的侵入式脑机结合、还是淘宝的意念购等等,要想真正商用普及,挑战还真不小。

Whether it is the intrusive brain-computer combination of Neuralink just mentioned, or the Taobao Neurabuy, etc., it is a big challenge to really realize the commercial popularization.



侵入式脑机接口,最大的问题是植入后与大脑的兼容性。我们的人脑不仅有坚硬的头颅作为头盔保护,还有血脑屏障来阻碍一切外物入侵。想让一个植入的芯片克服造物主精心设计的大脑排他性,而且还要解决长期放置电极的感染问题,这难度堪比让懂王be humble!

The biggest problem with the invasive brain-computer interface is the compatibility with the brain after implantation. There is not only a hard skull as a helmet to protect the human brain, but also a blood-brain barrier to prevent anything from invading. It is difficult to get an implanted chip to overcome the brain's exclusivity carefully designed by the Creator and to solve the problem of infection caused by the long-term placement of electrodes, which is as difficult as letting the King of “nobody knows better than me” be humble.


非侵入式的脑机接口呢,也有技术克星,那就是脑机信息传输的效率问题。人脑中的神经元有860多亿个,而且神经元大多都藏在皱褶之中。现在根本没啥技术的穿透性和覆盖面,能够精细记录或者刺激神经元信号,所以现存的人机接口设备,其实都只是低级玩家。

As for the non-intrusive brain-computer interface, there is also a technical nemesis, that is, the efficiency of brain-computer information transmission. There are more than 86 billion neurons in the human brain, and most of them are hidden in folds. At present, there is no technical penetration and coverage, which can finely record or stimulate neuronal signals, so the existing man-machine interface devices are actually low-level players.



马斯克的这场小猪发布会成功刷屏,让话题焦点都集中在了脑机接口和神经科学上,但也扯出了不少哲学问题。

Musk’s little pig press conference successfully flooded the screen, which not only focused on brain-computer interface and neuroscience but also raised a lot of philosophical issues.


大脑就像潘多拉的盒子,没人知道该不该打开,应该怎么打开,或者打开后会发生什么。所以大家都只能摸着石头过河。

The brain is like Pandora’s box, no one knows whether to open it, how to open it, or what will happen when it is opened. So everyone can only cross the river by feeling the stones.


前沿科技的出现,本意往往都是美好的,比如脑机接口帮助残障人士、娱乐大众、更易操控等等,但往往在发展过程中都容易变了味,看过《黑镜》的同学,你们懂的。所以对待前沿科技,谷歌曾经定下一条铁律:不拿科技作恶,但实施起来却.... 你看最近谷歌都在油管上疯狂删了啥?!

The original intention of the emergence of cutting-edge technology is often kind, for instance, the brain-computer interface can help the disabled, entertain the public, be easier to control, and so on.  However, it is often easy to change in the process of development. Those who have watched Black Mirror should understand that. So when dealing with cutting-edge technology, Google once laid down an iron rule: do not use technology to do evil, but when put it into practice... Just take a look at what Google has deleted on Youtube recently?



在大国对抗的关键时期,我们从来不缺那些宣扬情绪的人,缺的是勤勤恳恳、踏实做事研究前沿科技的人,毕竟打嘴炮并不能让我们跑赢。积累基础科学,掌握核心技术,才能避免让别人掐住命运的咽喉。

In the critical period of great power’s confrontation, we are never short of people who promote their emotions, but those who work diligently and study cutting-edge science and technology down to earth. After all, boasting can not let us win truly. Only by accumulating basic science and mastering the core technology can we avoid letting others hold the throat of fate.


科技本身是有两面性的,邪恶的人会拿它来干坏事,善良的人会用它让世界变得更加便利美好。其实不只是科技,世界万物都如此,就像我喜欢的电影《放牛班的春天》里,一群不良少年在耐心善良的老师引导下,也能唱出天籁之音。

Technology itself has two sides, evil people will use it to do bad things, while kind people will use it to make the world more convenient and beautiful. In fact, it’s not just technology, but everything in the world, just like in my favorite movie Les Choristes, a group of bad teenagers can sing the sounds of nature under the guidance of a patient and kind-hearted teacher.


这就是我今天想分享的所有内容,如果你喜欢这期内容,别忘了点赞关注。我是电动Emma,左手科技,右手文艺,我们下回再见。

That’s all I want to share today. If you like this video, don’t forget to like it and follow me. I am Emma, technology in left-handed, literature in right-handed. See you next time.



文稿/录音:电动Emma
剪辑/视觉:DannyData视频小组
排版:Xuyang

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